The relationship between age and glycaemic control in patients living with diabetes mellitus in the context of HIV infection: a scoping review

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, metabolic disease characterised by raised blood glucose levels. In 2019, there were an estimated 463 million adult patients living with diabetes (PLWD), with this figure expected to reach around the 700 million mark by 2045.2 Patients living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) comprise approximately 79% of the global adult PLWD figures, with approximately 20% of these PLWD being older than 65 years. This contrasts with developed countries, where the majority of such patients are older than 64 years, illustrating that the burden of DM rests on the shoulders of the younger working age population in these LMIC. These patients living with type 1 and type 2 diabetes already have reduced life expectancies of approximately 20 and 10 years respectively4 and DM occurring at a younger age only serves to compound the problem of decreasing the life expectancy of the population in these LMIC, which are already being burdened by communicable diseases such as HIV infection and tuberculosis (TB). South Africa (SA) is classified as a LMIC and also has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the world at 13%.5 In addition, TB has been reported as the main cause of mortality in SA in 2019, with an estimated 58 000 annual TB-attributable deaths.

Role of clinical laboratories in reporting results of transgender individuals on hormonal therapy

Transgender, or Trans, is a broad term that is used to describe individuals who experience discordance between their gender identity and their sex assigned at birth and may include nonbinary and gender-queer individuals, whereas Cisgender/Cis is an individual whose gender matches the sex they were assigned at birth. Other terms associated with gender dysphoria are described in Table 1. Globally, transgender individuals represent a diverse group with diverse concerns. This population challenges social norms, because it personifies the differences between biological sex and gender. The gender item may leave transgender patients wondering whether to select their affirmed gender or the one corresponding to legal documents.

Diabetes in the Western Cape: an eight-year profile

The novel coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the vicious interaction between communicable and non-communicable diseases globally. People living with diabetes mellitus (PLWD) who contract COVID-19 are at increased risk of a more severe disease process and higher mortality. Additionally, DM has been identified as the leading underlying cause of death in the province of the Western Cape (WC), South Africa (SA). The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that 69% of PLWD in Africa are undiagnosed, with many being identified only after the onset of serious complications. These complications, such as amputations, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and retinopathy, create both a physical and an emotional burden on patients and their families. Moreover, the disease places a heavy economic burden on the African continent’s already overstretched public health systems.

Hyperglycaemia, diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal

Background: Despite a substantial diabetes mellitus (DM) burden, there are few data regarding the relationship between DM and hyperglycaemia on COVID-19 severity and outcome in African populations. This study aimed to describe this relationship in the local context, and to determine whether our data correlated with observations made globally.

The effectiveness of diabetic foot-care education in a South African regional hospital: a randomised controlled trial

Background and aims: Improving foot-care knowledge and practice is the foundation of curbing diabetic foot disease and subsequent amputation. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a foot-care education module on change in knowledge and behaviour among patients living with diabetes mellitus (DM).



Health Professions Council of South Africa


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Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa - April 2022 Vol 27 No 1

3.0 CPD Points