Introduction

Association of ADAM12 variants with osteoarthritis in an urban South African population

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial, progressive, and degenerative disease of the synovial joints1 and is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide.2,3 OA causes pain and disability in many elderly individuals.4,5 Future global estimates indicate that OA will be the single most significant cause of disability in the general population by 2030,6 posing a considerable challenge to the healthcare systems. In European countries, the prevalence of clinical OA is ~30.4% among people 65–85 years of age.7 In the Shanxi Province of China, the prevalence of OA was reported at 49.8% among individuals aged 50 years and older.8 OA prevalence in Africa is varied, with Tunisia reporting a prevalence of 4.7% among people older than 65 years9 and South Africa reporting prevalence ranging from 29.5% to 82.7% among adults older than 65 years.10 According to the Arthritis Foundation of South Africa, an estimated 3.2 million South Africans suffer from OA.2,3

Biochemical laboratory findings in adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at a university hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

The first patients presenting with an atypical pneumonia linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China, were described in late December 2019. On 7 January 2020, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)2 was announced as the cause of the outbreak and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostic tests were developed for diagnosis. On 11 March 2020, the outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and on 5 March 2020, the first South African cases were confirmed.4 At the time of writing, October 2021, the global statistics include 239 007 759 cumulative cases with 4 871 841 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths worldwide. South Africa had a cumulative number of cases in excess of 2 913 880, with over 80 000 deaths. Although COVID-19 may be asymptomatic or cause only mild flu-like disease, some patients develop significant respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications.

Correlation of procalcitonin values with sepsis in blood cultures

Sepsis in critically ill patients is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. According to Dellinger et al., mortality is greater than 25.0–35.0% in sepsis patients and 40.0–35.0% in septic shock patients. Insufficient antimicrobial therapy and treatment associated with delayed diagnosis increases mortality. The selection of tailored antimicrobial therapy, according to the causative sepsis pathogen, may lead to a substantial improvement in sepsis prognosis. It is, therefore, essential for an effective antimicrobial treatment of sepsis to recognise the causative pathogen.

Differences in the microbial profile in South African pregnant women with Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis infections using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach

The vaginal microbiome is an important factor in a woman’sreproductive health. A healthy vagina is dominated byspecies of Lactobacilli to maintain a low pH through their fermenting activity, which protects the area against undesirable microorganisms. Lactic acid produced by Lactobacilli species serves as a protective mechanism against vaginal infections, while other species also produce hydrogen peroxide.1 The hydrogen peroxide produced has a bactericidal effect on several bacteria including G. vaginalis, Prevotella bivia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Alternative sample injection loop for the DionexTM UltiMateTM 3000 analytical autosampler

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) forms an important part of a variety of analytical instruments used in fields of analytical chemistry, as well as pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. Keeping these instruments working at an optimal level requires continual good maintenance. The dayto- day maintenance costs usually form part of the research budget. Unexpected instrument breakdowns can therefore cause unforeseeable financial costs, not only placing a strain on the research budget, but also causing prolonged experimental downtime. At our analytical laboratory, the Thermo Scientific™ DionexTM UltimateTM 3000 series HPLC system is connected to a variety of detectors and is used for sample analysis. The system’s WPS-3000TSL analytical autosampler uses a stainless steel 100 μl sample injection loop, with a gradient delay volume of 130 μl. This broke down, and consequently, the sample injection loop needed to be replaced. A request to rather use more economically viable peek tubing was communicated to the company that represents Thermo Scientific™ in South Africa. This technical note describes the installation of the peek tubing on the WPS-3000TSL analytical autosampler and provides validation data to verify that this alternative sample loop is an efficient alternative on this HPLC system.

Accreditation

Health Professions Council of South Africa

MTS22/172

3 Clinical 

Certification

Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate





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The Journal of Medical Laboratory Science and Technology - 2022 Vol 4 No 1

3.0 CPD Points


Level 2