Current Management of Uveal Melanoma
Uveal melanoma originates from the pigment-producing melanocytes within the eye. The word uvea means grapelike in Greek, and so this descriptive word has been assigned to the pigmented tract within the eye which includes the choroid, ciliary body, and iris (uveal tract). Uveal tumours are located either in the iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). Conjunctival melanomas are rare and can arise in any part of the conjunctiva. Until more recently, the rarity of conjunctival melanoma has impeded progress in the management of these patients.
The use of OCTA in practice
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has emerged as a non-invasive approach to visualise the retinal and choroidal vasculature. Whereas fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) require intravenous access and dye injection, with potential complications including nausea and anaphylaxis, OCTA is dye-free and fast. The three dimensional image acquisition is based on algorithms that translate multiple A-scans to OCTA images. In a motionless eye, the blood flowing through the vessels in the fundus is the only moving structure, allowing for contrast to be generated based on the difference between the static surrounding tissue and moving cells within the vasculature. OCT angiograms are co- registered with OCT B-scans, attained simultaneously, thus visualising the retinal blood flow and structure in tandem.
Case report: Facial nerve palsy caused by Poliomyelitis infection
The history of the polio epidemics in the mid-20th century is compelling. The paralysis occurs in 1% of those infected. This paralysis most commonly affects the lower limbs but in rare cases a bulbar paralysis occurs with consequent cardiac and respiratory failure. This necessitated the use of the “iron lung” to save the patient’s life. In some cases paralysis reverses in the first year but after that time few improved. In 90% of infections the patients suffer no symptoms.
An introduction to Women in Ophthalmology South Africa (WOSA)
Women in Ophthalmology South Africa (WOSA) was founded in 2022 in the hopes of fulfilling a dream by its founding members to create a unique space for female ophthalmologists to thrive in this country. The first meeting took place in March 2022 in an unused hall at the OSSA Congress in Sun City. It is here that a seed was sewn and a new organisation was born.
Health Professions Council of South Africa
Attempts allowed: 2
70% pass rate
Ophthalmic Opinion - Vol 7 No 1 - 2024