MRI brain findings in patients with depression and type 2 diabetes – a scoping review

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are approximately 422 million patients living with diabetes (PLWD) worldwide. Approximately 90% of the PLWD have type 2 DM (T2DM).2 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), PLWD have a 200–300% higher incidence of depression compared with those without diabetes, and only 25–50% of these patients receive treatment. Furthermore, the WHO estimates that there are approximately 280 million patients who currently have depression. According to Sartorius, around 10–15% of patients experience an overlap between depressive disorders and diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition, poor glycaemic control has been found to increase the odds of depression, highlighting the importance of good glycaemic control and avoidance of the risk of depression.

Cardiorenal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors: who might benefit?

In South Africa, even in tertiary specialist clinics, fewer than one out of every four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus achieves HbA1c < 7%, the recommended target to reduce microvascular complications. South Africa is not unusual in this regard and, worldwide, glycaemic control among people with type 2 diabetes is notoriously poor. Especially if uncontrolled, type 2 diabetes is an important cause of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease and, in comparison with the general population, people with diabetes have a higher prevalence of CVD, heart failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Tobacco use in diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study to determine the effect of snuff tobacco use on diabetes mellitus complications over a period of nine years

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health concern that impacts millions of people and can lead to significant morbidity and premature mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90–95% of cases, and is strongly influenced by environmental, nutritional, and lifestyle factors. One such lifestyle factor that has been linked to diabetes is smoking, which has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Unfortunately, the prevalence of smoking in Africa is high, with notable regional and gender differences. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use makes up about 25% of global tobacco consumption, with some individuals using more than one type of tobacco concurrently. Aggarwal et al. and Luo et al. have shown that the risk of developing T2D after smoking cessation is the same as for non-smokers after 10 years. Smoking is, therefore, one of the most important reversible factors that could be implemented on all levels of medical care to improve morbidity and mortality.

Therapeutic inertia: a retrospective examination of inpatient management for type 2 diabetes mellitus at a South African regional hospital during a singular hospitalisation

Despite a plethora of compelling evidence and significant strides in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a substantial proportion of the affected population persistently fails to meet the requisite therapeutic benchmarks. Therapeutic inertia (TI) – the phenomenon characterised by healthcare providers’ reluctance to initiate or amplify therapy despite clinical indications – has emerged as a universal barrier in accomplishing optimal glycaemic control, which constitutes the mainstay of treatment.

Trends in the burden of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in Saudi Arabia

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Diabetes also causes complications such as devastating macrovascular (cardiovascular disease) and microvascular (diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, and neuropathy) conditions, which lead to increased mortality, blindness, kidney failure, and overall decreased quality of life in people living with diabetes.

Suboptimal control and failure to intensify therapy for South Africans with type 2 diabetes: an audit of diabetes management at primary health care facilities

Diabetes mellitus is a complex, metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia that affects millions of people worldwide. In recent years, the number of people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in South Africa has increased. Currently, one in four South Africans older than 45 years has diabetes. The 2021 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) report estimates that 4.2 (1.7–4.6) million South African adults live with diabetes.

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Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa - April 2024 Vol 29 No 1