Knowledge, attitudes and awareness regarding donor breast milk: a crosssectional study of mothers in a high HIV-prevalent area

Exclusive breast milk is the ideal nutritional source for optimal infant growth and neurodevelopment. However, when mothers cannot produce breast milk, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends donated expressed breast milk (DBM) as the best alternative for infants with low birthweight (LBW) and/or who are premature. The incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and septicaemia in LBW and premature infants has decreased with the usage of human milk, including DBM, as opposed to milk from non-human sources. In these high-risk infants, feeding with donated expressed breast milk effectively prevents infectious diseases, enhances feeding tolerance, improves neurocognitive function and has other long-term health benefits. Donated expressed breast milk is from a source other than the mother’s own milk. It is usually pooled from several human donors and processed by a donor milk bank for use by a recipient who is not the mother’s own infant.

Associations between nutrition knowledge and obesity-related attitudes and physical activity among young adults from Kenya, South Africa, and the United Kingdom

Although obesity-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) remain the leading cause of death, their impact can be effectively controlled by reducing certain behavioural risk factors, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. There has been a rapid rise in these risk factors, due to globalisation of unhealthy lifestyles and poorly planned urbanisation. Accordingly, high-income countries (HICs) including the United Kingdom (UK) are being highly affected, and low- and middleincome countries (LMICs) like Kenya and South Africa (SA) have the highest future projections of NCD prevalence.

Non-nutritive sweeteners: consumer awareness and inclusion in food and beverage products in South Africa

Globally, the burden of obesity and diabetes has had a direct influence on the inclusion of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) in product reformulation. Extensive evidence exists to show how the consumption of NNSs has increased among obese individuals and diabetics. Evidence indicates that the global market for NNSs grew by 5.1% annually between 2008 and 2015. Alsunni describes the recent surge in the use of sweeteners as being the result of the global spread of obesity. This increase could be seen as a response to implementing public policies to reduce added sugars. A report from Mordor Intelligence describes how large the sweetener market has become over time. According to the report, the global food sweetener market was valued at US$ 85.92 billion in 2020 and is projected to see a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.49% during the forecast period (2021–2026). Consumers are demanding a greater variety of low-kilojoule products as they strive to make healthier food choices, resulting in the increased consumption of NNSs worldwide. A sweetener is classified as a food additive. 8 It mimics the effect of sugar on taste receptors. Sweeteners are called sugar substitutes and can be natural or synthetic. Natural sweeteners are defined as sweeteners that are found in nature, occurring naturally in fruit. Natural sweeteners carry a nutritional value and are non-carcinogenic as compared with some synthetic sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame and sucralose. Synthetic sugar substitutes are commonly referred to as artificial sweeteners, low-calorie sweeteners or NNSs. Nutritive sweeteners are also known as polyols. Polyols are a specific group of sugar alcohols formed through catalytic hydrogenation of carbohydrates, add sweetness with less energy, and are often used in combination with other polyols or NNSs because of the bulking property of some polyols. Sweeteners have become a favourable sugar replacer in product formulation. Small amounts of NNSs can be used due to their high-intensity sweet taste and are therefore believed to be helpful in supporting low-kilojoule diets. Saccharin, acesulfame, aspartame, neotame, sucralose and advantame have been commonly consumed and used NNSs since their Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the early 1980s. In 2017, sucralose was the most widely NNS consumed, and it accounted for one-third of the global market.

Job satisfaction and perception of workloads among dietitians and nutritionists registered in South Africa

Job satisfaction and workload represent subjective constructs of how individuals perceive their work, which has a major impact on the quality of work performance and turnover among staff. There is a growing recognition that personal perspective concerning work demands directly impacts quality care and patient satisfaction within healthcare. Understanding which factors shape perceptions of work within the discipline of nutrition and dietetics may assist managers in recruiting and retaining a highly skilled workforce and guide resource allocation policies toward a more balanced workload, particularly in developing countries with overburdened healthcare systems.

Urgent call for awareness and education about donor breastmilk

Breastmilk is considered the best source of nutrition for newborn infants due to its numerous and well documented benefits. Breastmilk and breastfeeding are also regarded as the most powerful interventions to save infants’ lives, notably for those born preterm and low birth weight. For these infants, a weakened immune system and immature gastrointestinal system, with related motility, digestion and absorption issues could lead to dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in the short term. If the infants survive, impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes can, and do, occur in the longer term. In such cases, breastmilk can provide bioactive and immune factors that promote gut maturation, protect against infections, and facilitate growth.

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South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - 2024 - Vol 37 Issue 1