The approach to the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in outpatients

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in the community. Young sexually active women are especially vulnerable to developing UTIs. An estimated 50% of all women will experience at least one episode of cystitis in their lifetime.

A guide to the diagnosis and management of acute infectious diarrhoea

Gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious disease syndromes with an estimated 2.4 billion episodes occurring worldwide on an annual basis. Although the vast majority of cases of acute gastroenteritis is self-limiting, significant morbidity and mortality is still observed in children <5 years of age living in resource limited settings.

According to the World Health Organization, diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or watery stools per day, or  otherwise more frequently than regarded as normal for an individual. Diarrhoea can further be classified according to duration and clinical presentation which has implications as to the causative agent, diagnostic work-up and management.

The rational use of antibiotics in the management of respiratory tract infections in the outpatient setting

The World Health Organisation has declared antibiotic resistance one of the top ten public health threats facing humanity. The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance globally are the misuse and overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medication in the world.  The use of these drugs have rapidly increased over the past decades, especially in low to middle income countries. Global antibiotic consumption increased by 65% between 2000 and 2015.  Other factors such as poor infection prevention and control in the hospital setting, lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, lack of access to good quality, affordable medications, vaccines and diagnostics combined with poor legislation are major exacerbating factors.

Covid-19: impact on the circulation of seasonal respiratory viruses (influenza a, influenza b and rsv)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in late 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) subsequently declared it a pandemic on 11 March 2022. Various countries implemented national lockdowns after COVID-19 spread rapidly across the world, with South Africa following suit on 27 March 2020 (Stage 5 lockdown). During the two-year period that followed, different levels of lockdown were implemented. Social restrictions, mask wearing, hand hygiene and other non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) all reduced not only COVID-19 transmission, but also the circulation of other respiratory viruses.


Health Professions Council of South Africa


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