Retrospective study of the treatment outcomes of cervical cancer in young women treated at a single institution

Cervical carcinoma is the fourth most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in many parts of Africa and affects mostly young women from poor countries and disadvantaged populations. The highest incidence rates are recorded in sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa (SA), cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer affecting women. The South African National Cancer Registry (NCR) recorded an age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of 29.1/100 000 women and listed cervical carcinoma as the major cause of cancer-related deaths among South African women.

Cervical cancer screening utilisation and associated factors among women aged 30 years and above in southern Ethiopia, cross-sectional study, 2020

Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18. It is a health crisis impacting women and their families across the world – especially in low-resource settings. In 2020, an estimated 604 237 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer globally, representing 6.5% of all female cancers. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In Ethiopia, an estimated 20.9 million women were at risk of developing cervical cancer, with an estimated 4 648 new cases and 3 235 deaths annually.

The impact of positive margins and crypt involvement in excisional procedures of the cervix on recurrence rates of premalignant disease of the cervix

According to the 2018 GLOBOCAN report, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women. It is reported that there were 569 847 new cervical cancer diagnoses made during 2018. There was a slight decrease in incidence at 13.1 per 100 000, compared to 14 per 100 000 in 2014. The prevalence is higher in vulnerable populations such as those who are immunocompromised. This is a major contributing factor to rates in sub-Saharan Africa as there is a high prevalence of HIV. Incidence of cervical cancer in southern Africa remains the highest worldwide at 43.1 per 100 000, which is an increase from 2014. It is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in South Africa at an incidence of 44.4 per 100 000, with 12 983 patients diagnosed in 2018.

A case report of a patient with a primary ovarian carcinoid tumour who has right heart failure

Carcinoid tumours of the ovary macroscopically appear as solid yellow, fibrous ovarian masses. Pure primary ovarian carcinoids are uncommon. Only a third of these tumours are associated with carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by the secretion of vasoactive substances such as serotonin (5HT), histamine, kallikrein, prostaglandins and tachykinins, which originate from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. These vasoactive substances are usually inactivated by liver enzymes, and the failure of this might lead to carcinoid heart disease.

Superficial spreading cervical squamous cell carcinoma in situ with extensive endomyometrial infiltration masquerading as a primary endometrial cancer

Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium is exceedingly rare and constitutes less than 0.5% of all endometrial cancers. Diagnosis always requires careful exclusion of secondary uterine corpus involvement by SCC from another site, most frequently the cervix. While the tumour’s primary site is usually apparent on clinical and radiologic grounds, this distinction may sometimes be problematic.

High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion

High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG ESS) is an uncommon malignant mesenchymal neoplasm arising in the uterus. These tumours are very rare, and their true incidence is largely unknown. Several molecular subgroups have recently been identified, and more are likely to be described in the future. These tumours have a prognosis which is intermediate between low-grade ESS and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Awareness of this entity is important for pathologists and treating clinicians alike as timely and accurate recognition will facilitate expedient therapy. We present a diagnostically challenging case of HG ESS with proven Z3CH7B-BCOR fusion to highlight the key features of this tumour and increase awareness amongst our colleagues working with malignancies of the gynaecological tract.

Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands of the vulva: a case report and literature review

A 60-year-old woman was referred by a district hospital where she presented with a 3-month history of a painless vulval growth. She presented no other symptoms, had reached menopause at the age of 56 years and was not on hormonal therapy. The patient had a caesarean section in 1979 and had been on antihypertensives since she was diagnosed with hypertension in 2007. She is married, is employed as a domestic worker and does not smoke. On examination, she was generally well, with no palpable lymph nodes in either the axillae or groin. The breast examination revealed no masses or discharge, normal nipples and no skin changes. 

Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma in a 28-year-old female: a case report and review of literature

Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is a rare phenomenon occurring in approximately 0.17–2% of cases. Although any component of the MCT may undergo transformation, 80% of malignant transformations are to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the ectoderm. This transformation is frequently noted in postmenopausal women.

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