Appropriate use and limitations of (1-3)-β-D-glucan

This paper attempts to conceptualise the role of (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) within the fungal diagnostic armamentarium. Limitations of the assay will be highlighted.

Two major risk groups will be emphasised:

1. patients with haematological malignancies

2. intensive care patients.

Meningitis in immunocompromised hosts: An approach to the patient presenting to primary care in the era of antiretroviral therapy

The “immunocompromised host” in South Africa usually means a person living with HIV (PLHIV). Of course, especially in private practice, this might extend to include patients immunocompromised due to malignancies, autoimmune diseases, post-transplant and other indications or immunosuppressive therapy. However, this patient population is usually specialist-managed and less likely to present to a GP practice or primary care clinic. In this article, we focus our attention on the population of PLHIV.

An approach to diagnosis and management of vesicular rashes

A vesicle is defined as a small blister containing fluid. The fluid is clear, and the blister may open and weep. A vesicle is defined as being less than 5mm in diameter, whereas a bulla is greater than 5mm diameter. Vesicular eruptions have drawn much more attention in recent months with the recent monkeypox outbreak.


Health Professions Council of South Africa


2 Clinical 


Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate

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Infectious Diseases Updates - 2023 Vol 12 no 2