Factors affecting the choices made by primary caregivers during the complementary feeding transition period, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The transition at six months of age from a predominant milkbased diet to complementary foods is when children are found to be the most vulnerable to malnutrition, nutritional deficiencies, illness and failure to thrive. Complementary foods are required to be given timeously, in adequate amounts, prepared safely and must be nutritious. During this complementary feeding period, the responsibility lies with the child’s caregiver(s). Caregivers are the person(s) involved in the daily support of a child’s well-being.

Nursing practices associated with diagnosis of malnutrition in children under 5 years in West Rand District primary healthcare facilities

Despite major improvements in health outcomes, undernutrition in children aged under five years is still a major global public health challenge. Childhood undernutrition contributes to morbidity, mortality, impaired intellectual development, suboptimal adult work capacity and increased risk of diseases in adulthood. Globally, it was reported that more than six million children aged under five years died in 2016 and half of those deaths were attributed to undernutrition. Undernutrition is defined as a lack of proper nutrition caused by not having enough food containing substances necessary for growth and health and by other direct and indirect causes.

Vitamin D status of the elderly in the Vaal region, South Africa

Vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency has been recognised as a global public health problem. Although the major source of vitamin D for most individuals is cutaneous photosynthesis from ultraviolet-B radiation through sunlight exposure (80%), many countries with adequate sun exposure have reported vitamin D insufficiencies/deficiencies. This is especially true for people with dark skin, whose increased melanin production may result in lower vitamin D synthesis.

Use and perceived effectiveness of complementary medicines for weight loss in adult women

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide and poses a major public health problem. Approximately 68% of South African women are considered to be overweight or obese. Estimates of body fat are commonly determined using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference or waist– hip ratio measurements, skin callipers or bioelectric impedance machines, and these measures provide relevant information in a clinical setting.

Sociodemographic variables affecting caregivers’ attitudes towards the provision of healthy breakfast and lunchboxes to children in their care

Caregivers are responsible for ensuring healthy food provision and optimal feeding practices of children. Children can only choose from the food provided to them. They also mimic their caregivers’ food choices and would rather accept food provided when the health benefits of the food are explained by their caregivers.

The relationship of a weight-efficacy lifestyle with anthropometric indices among middle-aged Iranian women

Middle-aged women are at a greater risk of chronic diseases if they remain overweight or obese. According to the World Health Organization (2018), 650 million adults are obese worldwide. It is estimated that 42.5% of adults aged > 20 years are obese in the United States. A recent study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Iranian population is 60.3%, and the prevalence of obesity in women was 30.4%. A multicentre study on 156,624 postmenopausal women in the United States showed that the hazard ratio for all causes of death was greater for overweight or obese women with central obesity.

Key role-players’ perceptions of the current salt legislation in South Africa: opportunities and challenges

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in the world and account for 51% of all deaths in South Africa. NCDs are a group of diseases that include cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and mental health conditions. Cardiovascular-related deaths are the biggest contributor to NCD mortality rates and are closely associated with unhealthy diets, especially a diet too high in sodium (salt).

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South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - March 2023 - Vol 36 Issue 1