Cutaneous ureterostomy versus ileal conduit – outcomes and cost implications post-cystectomy

RC is the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, it carries a high rate of early and late complications that are associated with the choice of urinary diversion. CU is the safest and fastest technique of urinary diversion following RC. Hence it is commonly the chosen technique in elderly or frail patients. Despite CU being the fastest and safest method of urinary diversion, the concern of ureteric and stomal stenosis has resulted in CU being unpopular in most centres. The true incidence of stomal and ureteric stenosis in CU is not well defined as the surgical techniques are highly variable.

Circumcision – ancillary to surgery for abdominal wall, groin, scrotal and allied conditions

Circumcision is the most commonly performed operation in males worldwide and entails excision of the prepuce. This is done mainly for cultural or religious reasons. Social reasons have also gained prominence and groups that traditionally did not practice circumcision now do so. Other reasons for circumcision include medical indications, prophylaxis against human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Contraindications to circumcision are hypospadias, epispadias, prematurity, severe congenital penile curvature, micropenis, megaprepuce and bleeding disorders such as haemophilia. The inconspicuous penis; encompassing buried, concealed or webbed penis, is also a contraindication to circumcision. Figure 1 shows illustrations of circumcisions done when contraindicated as seen at the publishing institution. Medical indications for circumcision include pathological phimosis with a non-retractable scarred prepuce, recurrent balanoposthitis being infection of the glans and preputial sac, lichen sclerosus atrophicans (balanitis xerotica obliterans), paraphimosis, and recurrent urinary tract infections usually associated with urinary tract abnormalities such as vesicoureteric reflux. Circumcision also affords good general hygiene and reduction of transmission of HPV and HIV in adults.

Managing hypospadias in a tertiary hospital in northern Ghana: a retrospective study

Hypospadias is a fairly common congenital anomaly affecting the urethra of males. Owing to conflicting data on its prevalence and variations in countries and ethnicity, it is difficult to estimate its worldwide prevalence. The incidence seems to be increasing and a rate of approximately 1 in 250 male newborns has been reported. In the West African subregion, prevalence is 1.1% among primary school pupils from south-eastern Nigeria and accounts for 0.3% of paediatric urological surgeries at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

Body mass index and waist circumference in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to the proliferation of the stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate gland. This proliferation of cells is mainly at the transition zone of the prostate gland in the early stages, and may involve the entire gland at a later stage, leaving only a rim of normal glandular tissue beneath the capsule. It has been associated with risk factors such as ageing and positive family history. In recent times, body habitus has been questioned as a risk factor for the development and progression of symptomatic BPH.

Describing postoperative complications and the perioperative associations of curative surgery for renal cell carcinoma at a South African centre

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an insidious onset and wide variations in pathology, clinical course and response to treatment. Globally, RCC constitutes 2.2% of all cancers and is shown to be the seventh most common malignancy in the developed world. It is the third most common urological malignancy with the majority of RCC worldwide and in South Africa being diagnosed incidentally.

A retrospective chart review of the management and outcomes of penile cancer patients who underwent penectomy over a five-year period at St. Aidan’s Hospital, Durban

Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy in industrialised nations, affecting between one and nine per million men. However, there is a three- to four-fold higher prevalence in low- or middle-income countries such as Uganda, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico and Haiti, where penile cancer represents 10–12% of all urogenital malignancies. Its prevalence in South Africa is reported to be 1.99 per 100 000.

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African Urology Journal Volume 3 Issue 2 - 2023