Initiating or switching to IDegAsp in a real-world South African population with type 2 diabetes – a cohort analysis from the ARISE study 

In people with newly diagnosed diabetes, lifestyle modification and metformin are the recommended first-line treatments. However, diabetes is a progressive disease. Pancreatic beta cell function starts to decline long before diagnosis, such that most patients have already lost 50% of beta cell function by the time type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is diagnosed, and, despite treatment, beta cell function continues to decline at approximately 4% per year. Eventually, most patients will require insulin therapy.

Feasibility study on the use of the modified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in South African context: a case of home-based carers

The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is one of the risk models established by Lindström and Tuomilehto, with the purpose of identifying undetected cases of diabetes and risk scores. The FINDRISC is a quick, easy, inexpensive, non-invasive questionnaire that has been validated and estimates a person’s likelihood of developing diabetes within the next 10 years. Use of the FINDRISC tool is critical and aids in primary diabetes prevention strategies. Age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of anti-hypertensive medicine treatment and history of high blood sugar were the original questions on the FINDRISC. Later studies, however, changed the model’s diet habits and physical activity questionnaires and included family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the study population.

Features of Turner syndrome in patients managed at the adult endocrinology clinic, Steve Biko Academic Hospital

Turner syndrome was first described nearly a century ago in the 1930s by three independent clinicians, Seresevskij, Ullrich and Turner. Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities and prevalence was estimated to be 1 in 2 500 live births. A recent study in Denmark showed that the prevalence is higher at 59 cases per 100 000, or 1 in 1 695 newborn females. This may reflect a true change in prevalence or an improvement in diagnostic techniques leading to increased detection.

Relevance and therapeutic implication of macroprolactinemia detection using PEG 6000 in women of childbearing age with hyperprolactinemia: experience at a tertiary hospital

Prolactin (PRL) is a single-chain protein synthesised and released by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Its secretion is regulated by dopamine, which has an inhibitory effect on lactotroph cells.1 When prolactin secretion increases in the absence of pregnancy, clinical symptoms such as galactorrhoea and irregular menstrual cycles may occur. Thes menstrual abnormalities include spaniomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea, which may contribute to infertility. Hyperprolactinemia is a well-recognised hormonal aetiology of infertility among women of childbearing age. It affects 30–40% of infertile women and 15–20% of women with menstrual disorders.

Effect of an educational intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour in type 2 diabetic patients at a foot and eye care practice

Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases on a global scale. Due to the expanding number of affected individuals and the disease’s severity, these individuals should seek immediate medical assistance. Lack of precise blood glucose monitoring has been identified as a major issue for diabetics.

A case of hyponatraemia secondary to vitamin D deficiency

Osteoporosis results in bone fragility, which is a risk factor for fragility fractures. These low-impact fractures are often the initial presentation of osteoporosis in older adults and have a devastating impact on both morbidity and mortality. Consequences of osteoporotic fractures include impaired mobility, increased use of healthcare resources and institutionalisation.

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Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa - 2023 Vol 28 No 3